Tropical Beekeeping ENG

Of the approximately 20,000 species of bees on Earth, it is estimated that no more than 5% live in colonies. Colony-forming and solitary or wild bees occur in town and country, except on eternal ice. The colony-forming species are highly social and form 3 sex groups: the Apis species (honeybees), the Bombus species (bumblebees) and the Melipona species (stingless bees).

Bees fly around the nest in a habitat with a range of ±10 meters to ±5 kilometers. A colony of honeybees multiply by reproductive swarming. In warmer regions, a colony of honey bees also moves from one nesting site to another. When migrating (looking for a better place) or absconding (leaving a bad place), a colony can travel tens of kilometers. Especially climate and season, the local ecosystem, disturbances and the gestation (pollen and nectar in crops) determine the way of life.

Reference related to tropical & global beekeeping.
Not complete or exhaustive, but hopefully inspiring for more self-study.

Universiteit Utrecht, Bee behaviour, Bee-plants and Beekeeping, The Netherlands
Standing commission for pollination and bee flora, Apimondia Mission Document 

Universidad National, CINAT - UNA, Costa Rica

WUR, Wageningen University & Research, bijen, The Netherlands
Practical guide for farmers: Agroforestry systems in the Upper Mara River Basin

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, INT
Guidelines 25: Good beekeeping practices for sustainable apiculture
Service bulletin 124: Value-added products from beekeeping 
TECA: Technologies and Practices for Small Agricultural Producers  

Volunteers in Technical Assistance, VITA publications, INT

Harlan HD Attfield, 2001, A Beekeeping Guide for the tropics and subtropics

World Development program, The Waterloo Foundation, WALES
Pam Gregory, 2011, basic beekeeping manual 1
Pam Gregory, 2011, advanced beekeeping manual 2

Making life better with bees, Bees for Development, UK
Resource Centre, the specialist international beekeeping organisation

Relieving poverty through beekeeping, Bees Abroad, UK

High quality organic-certified bee products (wax), Bees for the World, DE

Universitat Hohenheim, Landesanstalt fur Bienenkunde, DE

Sustainable Food and Agriculture, Acces Agriculture, INT
Beekeeping, Turning honey into money

FiBL, Forschungsinstitut für Biologischen Landbau, SCHWEIZ
Training materials: Organic Africa
Manual for trainers: African Organic Agriculture Training Manual

Universitat Bern (Ub), Institute of Bee Health, Bern, SCHWEIZ
honey bee research association COLOSS

Apimondia, INT - Apiservices, FR - Vita Bee Health, EU

UF|IFAS, World honey bee health, US
Honey bee Research & Extension Laboratory, Pathogens and Pests

Feed the Future, USAID, a Global Hunger and Food Security Initiative, US
Lessons learned: Beekeeping in the Philippines

PUM, Programma Uitzending Managers, INT

NECTAR, Netherlands Expertise Centre for Tropical Apicultural Resources, The Netherland
Perspectives for honey production in the tropics, Marinus J. Sommeijer e.a.
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